Deep foundations – what is it?

A variety of soils requires an individual approach to each specific case of the location of the object built on the construction of the builders. In the case of the construction of the building with features or the location of the building on the area characterized by the movements of the soil, creating horizontal efforts in it, as well as in a number of other specific cases, the design of the foundations of deep deepening – FGZ is used to base the structure.

All foundations used in construction are divided into two main classes. These are the foundations of a small laying depth, or small and foundations with a great depth of laying, or deep. Deep -laying foundations require large costs for their construction. The correct classification and optimization of the solutions chosen on the basis of construction experience allows us to make a qualitative choice of option, as a result, reflected in the cost of construction.

FGZ is performed during the construction of buildings with a load exceeding the bearing capacity of the soil. During construction in zones with freezing soils, the base of the buried foundation is selected at a depth no less than the thickness of the freezing layer of the soil. The purpose of this option for the structure is to create a reliably based on dense soil and a stable structure, which has an advantage of bearing capacity. This is required for multi -storey structures and in a number of other cases of the construction of heavy objects.

In order to give such a foundation for strength and reliable geometry in the calculations performed, it is necessary to set the distribution of the weight of the construction of the construction and the purpose of the building. When choosing the optimal constructive solution, it is necessary to use the experience of building on similar soils.

The main advice recommended by the builders:

On weak ground do not use a large amount of concrete.

Work, taking into account seismic resistance.

Do not place deep foundations on horizons saturated with water.

The foundations made taking into account the experience of the construction of structures and regulatory calculations provide long and reliable operation of the structure.

The classification of buried foundations is made in accordance with their type and purpose.

Wall in the ground

The construction is intended most often for buried objects, for example, underground parking, garages, etc. It is placed contour, along the perimeter of the structure. This is a long and narrow trench, which is filled with reinforced concrete or concrete. The optimal wall structure for dense urban development and for the construction of heavy structures. You can find out the opinions of experts in this area and really look into the underground world about on the site / .


It is used if it is necessary to perform structures with several levels, for example, ventilation mines. The design is performed symmetrically, closed in the ground and is performed open at the bottom and above. Collects from finished parts or concrete on the spot. Installation is carried out under its own weight or using vibration. When installing, it is necessary to strictly withstand the requirement of vertical immersion. The soil is removed from the well gradually, when the structure is lowered.


It is used in the installation of supports installed in soils at the level of the aquifer. In fact, the caisson is a capacity immersed in the soil below the water level. The soil with water is squeezed out of it with compressed air. After diving, the capacity is filled with concrete. The method is quite complicated, expensive and is rarely used.

Thin -walled shells

Used in weak soils. Consist of hollow metal cylinders, the diameter of which is selected according to the calculation. Typically, the dimensions of the cylinders in diameter do not exceed 3 meters, and in length they can be typed in sections from 6 meters. Sections are connected by welding, or bolts. As a rule, the sizes of sections choose no more than 12 meters in length. The shells immersed in the ground are filled with concrete.

Drilling supports

Used in dense soils. Are concrete pillars. Pillars are made reinforced, with a bruise at the bottom. The structure is installed in a pre -prepared mine.

Choosing the foundation for the building, the developer is primarily obliged to take care of the security of the constructed structure. The miscalculations when choosing a foundation will necessarily follow the need for restructuring. The foundation selected taking into account the seismic situation, the geological features of the site, the purpose of the structure and its weight ensures prolonged and economical operation of the structure of the structure.